Clit development-Five things you should know about the clitoris

We have made a histological study of the postnatal development of the clitoris, preputial glands, urethral glands and vagina of the golden hamster. The 'phallic groove' of the clitoris is closed at 10 days of life, then the urethra has a cuboidal stratified, a stratified squamous and a stratified keratinized epithelium. The preputial glands are composed of branched saccular glands. These glands develop, with few changes during their maturation period. Formation of the urethral glands begins at 5 days and the alveoli are fully developed at puberty.

Clit development

Clit development

Clit development

Clit development

Clit development

Archived from the original on 15 February Joint Meeting. The Psychology of Human Sexuality. Many surgeons feel that maintaining this tissue and allowing Clit development engorgement are beneficial for sexual arousal. Online Etymology Dictionary.

Private use policy of government fax. Feel-good areas: erogenous zones

When you're young, you are figuring out who you are and what makes Clit development unique. Categories : Gynaecology Sexual anatomy Sexual arousal Clitoris. John would from time to time actually develo;ment, street folks, drunks, drifters, hoboes develpoment help unload his merchandise and I know he applied devflopment knowledge he learned in this social class to his wage structure. The decision was honed by observation and experience. We waited for the judge to give us the signal to drink. Text Appearing Before Image: hen thrown around themass of veins and the spermatic artery and securely Gamespy do hardcore gamers still matter, the ligatures being aboutone inch apart. Lief, Harold I. Drug Enforcement Administration. BBC Three. Asker's rating. There was a school of thought which supported the Clit development idea of Mature Student. Based on O'Connell's research, Wallace's work emphasizes the sheer scope and size of the human clitoris. Those girls with larger breasts should use a bra.

Early controversy surrounding clitoroplasty resulted from many factors including an incomplete understanding of clitoral anatomy and incorrect assumptions of the role of the clitoris in sexual function.

  • Clitoris , female erogenous organ capable of erection under sexual stimulation.
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  • I had just turned 16 here, back in

Early controversy surrounding clitoroplasty resulted from many factors including an incomplete understanding of clitoral anatomy and incorrect assumptions of the role of the clitoris in sexual function. With a better understanding of anatomy and function, procedures have evolved to preserve clitoral tissue, especially with respect to the neurovascular bundles.

These changes have been made in an effort to preserve clitoral sensation and preserve orgasmic potential. It is the goal of this manuscript to describe the different procedures that have been developed for the surgical management of clitoromegally, with emphasis on the risks and benefits of each.

Equally important to any discussion of such a sensitive topic is an understanding of long-term patient outcomes. As we will see, despite its importance, there has been a dearth of data in this regard. Future work in the arena of patient satisfaction will undoubtedly play a major role in directing our surgical approach.

The clitoris, like the penis, consists of two corpora cavernosa. While not having a defined corpora spongiosum, the clitoris does have the male equivalent of the glans, which consists of spongiosal tissue. These arteries course ventrally and are on the medial aspect of the bifurcated corpora, where they then course dorsally along the phallic shaft 1.

Innervation governing tumescence and sensation are also similar to that observed in the penis. The clitoral neurovascular bundles ascend along the ischiopubic rami and meet as paired bundles that course along the dorsal surface and then pass largely intact into the glans. In considering the anatomy of the clitoris, one should also be versed in the anatomy of neighboring structures. If clitoroplasty surgery is undertaken, it is done so with the intent of providing an appearance that aims to closely resemble the typical female phenotype.

Regression of the glans clitoris, with creation of a labia minora and clitoral hood to properly conceal the glans, requires a good understanding of these later structures. A recent study of non-CAH females revealed that the labia minora converge under the clitoral glans, separate to the clitoral hood. Variability exists with regard to the morphology of the clitoral hood. The four recognized morphologies include horseshoe, trumpet, coffee bean, and tent 4. There are a limited number of clinical entities that result in clitoromegally.

Females with classic CAH, whether salt-losing or non-salt-losing, present at birth with an enlarged phallus due to in utero exposure to excess fetal adrenal androgens. The overall worldwide incidence of classic CAH is one in 15, live births of which two-thirds are salt wasting 5. In , Lawson Wilkins demonstrated that it was possible to suppress adrenal androgen production by providing these individuals with cortisone. With the ability to abrogate ongoing hormonal stimulation of the phallus, it was no longer deemed necessary to reconstruct these children as males.

A far less common condition that can cause enlargement of the phallus in the genetic female is exogenous in utero androgen exposure. This can either be due to the pregnant mother suffering from masculinizing tumors such as arrhenoblastoma [Ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors SLCTs ] of the ovary or exogenous intake of androgenic hormones 6 — 8. A number of Disorders of Sex Development DSD possessing a cell line with a Y chromosome can result in a child with an enlarged phallus who may be assigned the female gender role.

This choice should only be undertaken after extensive multidisciplinary assessment and counseling of the parents. In ovotesticular DSD previously labeled true hermaphroditism , functional ovarian and testicular tissues are both identifiable.

In both conditions, the phallus will undergo some degree of enlargement due to endogenous testosterone production. Rare cases of females with clitoromegally secondary to pelvic plexiform neurofibroma have also been reported At present, the decision to perform genital surgery in children with clitoromegally is intensely debated.

As with all reconstructive surgery for patients with Disorders of Sex Development DSD , three specific reasons for intervening are typically considered: providing anatomy suitable for penile—vaginal intercourse, achieving a manner for urination commensurate with gender identity i. Since the only known function of the clitoris itself is to provide sexual pleasure, the later goal is the only one that is relevant to the discussion of clitoroplasty. The primary concern in performing surgeries that address clitoral enlargement is that the procedure may reduce innervation to the clitoris.

To this point, it is important to note that when compared to controls, sexually mature females who have undergone surgery in childhood frequently report reduced sensation and decreased ability to achieve orgasm 15 — Prior to embarking on major surgery such as clitoroplasty, the patient must be in optimal physiologic condition. In that the majority of patients who present with clitoromegally are patients with CAH, an understanding of proper endocrine management in these patients is imperative.

As a general rule, there is high concordance between genotypic CYP21A2 mutations and phenotype In childhood, treatment is geared toward optimizing growth and pubertal development. Once adult height is achieved, treatment should be focused on optimizing fertility and quality of life and minimizing the side effects of glucocorticoid therapy. Treatment of the classic or severe form of CAH requires suppression of adrenal androgen overproduction and replacement of cortisol and aldosterone.

Non-classic CAH is a milder form of the disease. Although the same gene, CYP21A2, is involved in both the severe and mild forms, genetic mutations typically associated with non-classic CAH result in substantially less impairment of hydroxylase activity. Thus, patients with non-classic CAH do not have cortisol deficiency but instead may have manifestations of hyperandrogenism, later in childhood or in early adulthood. Treatment of the mild or non-classic form is targeted at controlling excess androgen symptoms and may or may not involve glucocorticoid therapy.

Longer-acting glucocorticoids have typically been avoided in children due to their potential for growth suppression No consensus exists for glucocorticoid dosing in adults.

Clinicians may use hydrocortisone, prednisone, prednisolone, dexamethasone, or a combination of treatments. Long-acting glucocorticoids are preferable because they are effective given once or twice daily The specific regiment varies between institutions worldwide.

Mineralocorticoid is given in classic cases of CAH. Fludrocortisone is provided to maintain normal electrolyte and plasma renin activity.

Overtreatment should be avoided and may result in hypertension. Levels of hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, androstenedione, and plasma renin activity are used to evaluate adequacy of therapy and patient compliance. Adrenal androgen concentrations later in the day and after medication will be lower, and target levels for hormones measured in this manner are unknown; thus, hormones are best measured early in the morning and before medication.

The target goal for androstenedione, testosterone, and plasma renin values are to have them within the normal range for age. Bone age and somatic growth data are also used to determine the efficacy of the chosen steroid replacement regimen. The physiologic stress that surgery induces requires thoughtful increases in perioperative steroid dosing. The role that clitoral surgery plays in clitoromegally remains strongly debated.

It is for this reason that it is imperative that a multidisciplinary care model be utilized to provide comprehensive care of the child and family.

Specific evidenced-based models for multidisciplinary care have been published Surgical techniques for management of clitoromegaly can broadly be divided into three categories: clitorectomy, reduction clitoroplasty, and corporal-sparing techniques. Prior to , many prominent surgeons supported the surgical removal of the entire clitoris 28 — This was largely based on the misunderstanding that the clitoris was unnecessary for sexual function The procedure began by placing a Foley catheter in the urethra to avoid injury.

The dorsal vein and suspensory ligaments were then divided. The corpora cavernosa were subsequently dissected proximally to the bifurcation of the crura and each of the crura was then separated from its attachment to the inferior aspect of the ischial rami.

Unlike previous authors who had advocated partial clitoral resection, Gross emphasized the complete removal of all tissues in order to eliminate the painful neuromata, which were reported to occasionally occur in the stump after amputation.

A vulvoplasty would be subsequently performed with the urogenital sinus tissue. This view apparently stems from the belief that the clitoris is necessary for normal sexual function.

This contention was later brought into question as reports of patients with sexual inhibition and ambivalence toward sexual activity began to surface Any surgical procedure involving the clitoris carries the risk of disruption of the nerve supply 16 , 33 Techniques to reduce clitoral size have attempted to minimize this risk by preserving the dorsal neurovascular bundles 34 — There is no unanimous consensus as to the best technique for achieving this goal.

Excision of the corporal bodies with preservation of the glans clitoris and attached ventral mucosa was initially described by Goodwin and later expounded upon by others 32 , 38 — In the earliest version of this operation, an incision was made at the dorsal base of the clitoris.

The crura were dissected back to the bifurcation of the crura. The neurovascular bundles were then dissected off of the shaft and the crura were separately mobilized, ligated, and divided.

The corporal shaft of the clitoris was then dissected distally to the glans and the corpora excised. The preserved glans and attached ventral mucosa were the recessed beneath the pubic arch If a vaginoplasty was to be undertaken simultaneously, then it was generally performed using a cut-back procedure or a Fortunoff flap Improved understanding of the importance of the dorsal neurovascular bundle for clitoral innervation led Goodwin to modify his technique of reduction clitoroplasty by approaching the dissection from the ventral aspect of the clitoris In his modification, a transverse or longitudinal incision was made on the ventral aspect of the skin overlying the clitoris.

The dorsal aspect of the clitoris with its associated skin and neurovascular bundles was left untouched. The shaft was then everted out of the incision and partial amputation was accomplished.

The glans clitoris and the proximal stump of the corporal bodies where then sutured together. Additional efforts to improve upon this technique ensued as surgeons found that degloving of the clitoral shaft provided improved exposure of the neurovascular bundles and hence decreased the chance of their injury. Dissection of the erectile bodies is facilitated by transection of the ventral plate and carried down to the crural bifurcation.

All tissues external to the tunica albuginea are carefully elevated. A dilute solution of papaverine , is used to irrigate the tissue in order to prevent vasospasm, thrombosis, and ischemia of the neurovascular tissue. In a select number of cases, intraoperative optical coherence tomography was used to further enhance visualization of dorsal nerves in situ.

Figure 1. Ventral nerve sparing clitoroplasty: anatomical diagram of cross-section of clitoral shaft. Figure 2. Ventral nerve sparing clitoroplasty: anatomical drawing of clitoroplasty. The corporal bodies are then transected 1. Opinion differs as to how the corporal tissue proximal to the bifurcation should be managed.

Many surgeons feel that maintaining this tissue and allowing for engorgement are beneficial for sexual arousal. In contrast, others feel that the remaining tissue may cause discomfort when engorged.

De Jong et al.

Schmotzer, B. A child who is not comfortable talking to adults will act according to whatever is suggested by her biological impulses, her peers or the media and culture around her. Contributing Library : Francis A. It's very common for a woman's two breasts to develop at different rates making one much larger than the other during puberty. They're sensitive to rubbing. The Case of the Missing Warts by charlie gregory. During your first few periods, you will probably experience a very small amount of blood loss.

Clit development

Clit development

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Clitoris - Wikipedia

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All female mammals — and some female birds and reptiles — have a clitoris or two , as is the case with snakes. In humans, the clitoris has been firmly tied to sexual pleasure, though whether it plays any other role is still a matter for debate.

Despite approximately half the world's population being born with a clitoris, this sexual organ is not talked about very much, and, until very recently, even the information that we might have found about it in textbooks was incorrect or misleading.

So, what is there to know about this elusive organ, and why are we still struggling to understand it? Read on to find out. The nature of the clitoris can be found in the name itself; "clitoris" comes from the Ancient Greek word " kleitoris ," meaning "little hill," and which itself may also be related to the word " kleis ," meaning "key.

Although this organ may be the key that unlocks female sexual pleasure, it is not just a "little hill," as it has long been believed. In fact, the little hill protected by a cloak of skin, or the "clitoral hood," which is found over the urethral opening is just the tip of the much larger organ that is the clitoris.

Yet the entire organ extends much farther than that, and this notion was initially brought to public attention only a few years ago by researcher Dr. Helen O'Connell. If you lift the skin off the vagina on the side walls, you get the bulbs of the clitoris — triangular, crescental masses of erectile tissue," Dr. O'Connell explained in an interview with the BBC in In its entirety, the clitoris may reach as many as 7 centimeters in length, if not longer, and the glans makes up about 4—7 millimeters of the whole.

Due to its high level of sensitivity, the clitoris is usually the main player when it comes to the female orgasm. Popular culture and pornographic material often tend to depict the female orgasm as something usually achievable solely through penetration, but science tells a different story altogether.

The clitoris has also sometimes been seen as a female penis, largely due to a phenomenon that we may refer to as "biological homology," which refers to the fact that all fetuses are born, as Emily Nagoski puts it, with "all the same part, organized in different ways.

This is also why men — who, unlike women, will not need, or be able, to express milk and breast-feed babies — have nipples. And this is how the clitoris develops; it and the penis are homologues. Nagoski explains how this happens during very early development in the womb. The female blastocyst does not respond to [this] [ While the penis and the clitoris are homologous, however, the penis plays several roles — erotic, reproductive, and excretive — while the clitoris performs only one job: that of creating erotic sensation, which may lead to orgasm.

Why might that be? According to Nagoski, the female orgasm is a "byproduct" of biological homology, and so it should be celebrated as a fantastic bonus. Instead, they think that, similarly to male orgasm — which coincides with the release of semen — female orgasm may have stimulated the release of ovules. For instance, the authors of an article that was published in in the journal JEZ-B Molecular and Developmental Evolution found that immediately after orgasming, women experience a hormonal surge that, in the modern human, has the effect of improving the mood.

But the substances thus released in the body, the scientists say, are not unlike those released in the bodies of other female mammals such as rats during intercourse, stimulating the release of eggs that can be fertilized. In humans, ovulation is a spontaneous event, independent from intercourse. But the authors of the aforementioned study hypothesize that, at some point in our evolutionary past, we may well have functioned like other mammals, and female orgasm may have stimulated the release of ovules.

Now, orgasm has persisted as a pleasurable evolutionary legacy, without the reproductive association. Ginsburg write that the clitoris had been shrouded in secrecy. Nobody liked to talk about it, and the problem, the investigators suggested, started in the home.

They write, "[B]ecause the clitoris's only function is for sexual pleasure, parents have no [ In a culture that has focused on the importance of reproduction to the detriment of enjoyment, the clitoris has lain forgotten, and the public and medical professionals alike have felt embarrassed to discuss and pay closer attention to it.

Yet the lack of a conversation about female genitalia and female pleasure may affect the way in which women understand their sexual health, and it may even impact their sex lives. We hope that this Spotlight can further the conversation about the clitoris, and that it has provided you with further insight into the wonders of female sexuality. MNT is the registered trade mark of Healthline Media. Any medical information published on this website is not intended as a substitute for informed medical advice and you should not take any action before consulting with a healthcare professional.

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Fact checked by Jasmin Collier. If you buy something through a link on this page, we may earn a small commission. How this works. How much do you know about the clitoris? This is a 3-D printed model of the clitoris, showing the glans, the crura, and the vestibular bulbs. The clitoris has only one role: erotic sensation.

The clitoris and the penis are homologous organs. Nagoski calls the female orgasm 'the fantastic bonus. What causes an enlarged clitoris? Learn about clitoromegaly, which is a medical condition wherein the clitoris becomes abnormally enlarged. The clitoris has been a taboo topic for too long, so we must break the silence, researchers say. Related coverage. Latest news Potato puree is a promising race fuel for athletes.

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Clit development