Sexual assault on college campus-NAICU - Sexual Assault on Campus

All A-Z health topics. View all pages in this section. Click the escape button above to immediately leave this site if your abuser may see you reading it. Share this video link from End Rape on Campus that talks about how men on campus, especially men in fraternities, can help stop sexual violence. The javascript used in this widget is not supported by your browser.

Sexual assault on college campus

Sexual assault on college campus

Sexual assault on college campus

Sexual assault on college campus

Sexual assault on college campus

Escape Xssault the escape button above to immediately leave this Sexual assault on college campus if your abuser may see you reading it. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education. It only counts on-campus assaults and does not account for the caampus rate of college sexual violence, which is about 90 percent, according to the U. The third approach to explaining rape identifies the contexts in which that rape and sexual assault occur. If cam;us feel uncomfortable in any situation for any reason, leave. This content is provided by the Office on Women's Health. Know where you are as you move around the campus. This gives a specific to that students can Sexual assault on college campus in preventing sexual violence, including naming and stopping situations that could lead to sexual violence before it happens, stepping in during an incident, and speaking out against ideas and behaviors that support sexual violence. NAICU has created a detailed summary of the requirements in the proposed regulations.

Herzbergs two factor model. Navigation menu

This information will help doctors, police, and Hairh redhead authorities in the hours and days after an attack. Go to parties or hangouts with friends. Sources Krebs, C. Language Assistance In. In addition, general cultural notions relating to victim-blaming are at play as the majority of assaults are never reported due to shame or fear. Retrieved 12 March The emotional and physical Sexual assault on college campus of an colege can deeply impact a student's ability to cope with academic, social, professional, and personal responsibilities. Retrieved 27 December Also Sexual assault on college campus as: Faculty Publications and Presentations. Related information Date rape drugs. Chattanooga Aszault Free Press. Research shows that about half of sexual assault victims had been drinking when the attack happened. Both the self-reported proclivity to commit rape in a hypothetical scenario, as well as self-reported history of sexual aggression, positively correlate with the endorsement of rape tolerant or rape supportive attitudes in men. Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.

Title IX of the Education Amendments of is a comprehensive federal civil rights law that prohibits sex discrimination in education.

  • On its website, the United States Department of Justice highlights a chilling statistic : one out of every four female undergraduates will be victim to some form of sexual assault before graduation.
  • Campus sexual assault is the sexual assault , including rape , of a student while attending an institution of higher learning, such as a college or university.

All A-Z health topics. View all pages in this section. Click the escape button above to immediately leave this site if your abuser may see you reading it. Share this video link from End Rape on Campus that talks about how men on campus, especially men in fraternities, can help stop sexual violence. The javascript used in this widget is not supported by your browser. Please enable JavaScript for full functionality. Sexual assault on college campuses is a common problem that often goes unreported.

It includes any unwanted sexual activity, from unwanted touching to rape. Alcohol and drugs often play a role in sexual assault on campuses. If you have been sexually assaulted, it is not your fault. You are not alone, and you can get help. Sexual assault is common among female students of all ages, races, and ethnicities.

One in five women in college experiences sexual assault. Studies show that students are at the highest risk of sexual assault in the first few months of their first and second semesters in college.

Sexual assault happens everywhere and to women and men of all ages. Colleges that get federal funding are required to publicly report sexual assault. You cannot prevent sexual assault because violent or abusive behavior is always the responsibility of the person who is violent or abusive.

However, you can take steps to be safer around others and help keep others safe from potential perpetrators: 5 , 6 , 7. If you are sexually assaulted, it is not your fault, regardless of the circumstances. If you are in immediate danger, call If you are in a safe place, you can call to report the sexual assault to the police as soon as possible. If the sexual assault happened on campus or the person who harmed you was a student, you can also report it to school authorities for additional support.

The school is required to help you continue your education. Schools that receive federal funding may provide other forms of support, such as counseling or tutoring, if you need it because of a sexual assault on campus. Women who are sexually assaulted may face health problems that include depression , anxiety , and post-traumatic stress disorder. But they may also have trouble reporting the assault or getting help they are entitled to from the school.

Women may also see the person who harmed them regularly in classes, dorms, or other places on campus, which can make it harder to recover from the assault. This includes going to school authorities and getting help. The risk of rape may be up to five times higher during a semester studying abroad than on a college campus in the United States.

When studying abroad, you can follow the same tips that can help you be safer at your home campus. These include being aware of your surroundings, always going out and staying with a group, either not drinking or limiting your drinking to a level at which you still feel in control, and watching your drink at all times. Before you go, check out information about the country in which you will be living on the U.

Department of State website Students Abroad. You can enroll in a program called the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program to get safety information and connect with the U. Sexual Assault Support and Help for Americans Abroad offers pre-travel information , tips for staying safe , and an international crisis line. Kathleen C. Basile, Ph. Kathryn Jones, M. Sharon G. Smith, Ph.

Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. This content is provided by the Office on Women's Health. Language Assistance Available.

Skip to main content. Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section. Home Relationships and Safety Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault on college campuses. Escape Click the escape button above to immediately leave this site if your abuser may see you reading it. Relationships and Safety Am I being abused? Domestic or intimate partner violence Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault Rape Sexual assault on college campuses Other types of violence and abuse against women Effects of violence against women Get help Help end violence against women Relationships and safety resources View A-Z health topics.

What men can do to help end sexual violence on campus Share this video link from End Rape on Campus that talks about how men on campus, especially men in fraternities, can help stop sexual violence. Subscribe To receive Violence Against Women email updates. Sexual assault on college campuses. Expand all. How common is sexual assault on college campuses? Why is sexual assault on college campuses so common?

Alcohol and drugs. Campus sexual assault often involves alcohol and drugs. Many young adults use alcohol or drugs for the first time during college. Using drugs or drinking too much alcohol can make you unaware of what is happening around you and to you. Reporting sexual assault. Only one in five college-age women who are sexually assaulted report the attack to the police.

Peer pressure. College-age women often live with people their own age on campus, rather than parents or other older adults. Students may feel peer pressure to participate in social activities like drinking, using drugs, going to parities, or engaging in sexual activities that make them uncomfortable. Being forced into unwanted sexual activity for social acceptance is a type of sexual coercion.

What steps can I take to be safer on a college campus? However, you can take steps to be safer around others and help keep others safe from potential perpetrators: 5 , 6 , 7 Get to know someone well before spending time alone with him or her. College is often about meeting new people and making new friends. But do not rely only on someone you just met to keep you safe.

Go to parties or hangouts with friends. Arrive together, check in with each other, and leave together. Talk about your plans for the evening so that everyone knows what to expect. Meet first dates or new people in a public place. If you feel uncomfortable in any situation for any reason, leave. You are the only person who gets to say whether you feel safe.

Be aware of your alcohol or drug intake. Research shows that about half of sexual assault victims had been drinking when the attack happened. Keep control of your own drink, because someone could put drugs or alcohol in it without you knowing. This can happen if someone put a date rape drug into your drink.

Date rape drugs have no smell or taste and can cause you to pass out and not remember what happened. Be aware of your surroundings. Especially if walking alone, avoid talking on your phone or listening to music with headphones.

Know where you are as you move around the campus. At night, stay in lighted areas, or ask a friend or campus security to go with you. Know your resources. You need to know where you can get help if you need it.

Know where the campus sexual assault center, the campus police, and the campus health center are. Find the campus emergency phones and put the campus security number into your cellphone.

Have a plan to get home. If you are going to use a ride sharing app, make sure your phone is charged. Consider keeping a credit card or cash as a backup for a taxi. What should I do if I am sexually assaulted while in college? What are some effects of sexual assault on campus? How can I be safer when studying abroad? Did we answer your question about sexual assault on campus? Krebs, C. Bureau of Justice Statistics, U. Department of Justice.

But they may also have trouble reporting the assault or getting help they are entitled to from the school. Start talking loudly on your phone. The White House. Even after physical wounds heal, physical and emotional scars can serve as painful reminders of the incident; survivors suffer the risk of chronic emotional distress. This information will help doctors, police, and campus authorities in the hours and days after an attack. Since the issuance of the "Dear Colleague" letter, a number of lawsuits have been filed against colleges and universities by male students alleging that their universities violated their rights over the course of adjudicating sexual assault accusations. Keep this in mind when you seek help.

Sexual assault on college campus

Sexual assault on college campus

Sexual assault on college campus. What You Can Do

In early , the group RAINN Rape and Incest National Network wrote an open letter to the White House calling for campus hearings to be de-emphasized due to their lack of accountability for survivors and victims of sexual violence. They often offer the worst of both worlds: they lack protections for the accused while often tormenting victims. Many institutions today are facing Title IX investigations due to the alleged lack of response on their campus to sexual assault.

Many campuses are facing the same challenges on how to address the problem of sexual assault and are taking measures to do so, by hiring teams for addressing Title IX complaints. In October , 28 members of the Harvard Law School Faculty co-signed a letter decrying the change in the way reports of sexual harassment are being processed.

In February , 16 members of the University of Pennsylvania Law School Faculty co-signed a similar letter of their own. In response to concerns, in the White House Task Force provided new regulations requiring schools to permit the accused to bring advisers and be clearer about their processes and how they determine punishments.

In addition to concerns about legal due process, which colleges currently do not have to abide, the push for stronger punishments and permanent disciplinary records on transcripts can prevent students found responsible from ever completing college or seeking graduate studies. Even for minor sexual misconduct offenses, the inconsistent and sometimes "murky" notes on transcripts can severely limit options.

Some critics of these policies, such as libertarian critics of feminism Cathy Young , Christina Hoff Sommers and Laura Kipnis , have characterized the concerns about sexual assault on college campuses as a moral panic. Since the issuance of the "Dear Colleague" letter, a number of lawsuits have been filed against colleges and universities by male students alleging that their universities violated their rights over the course of adjudicating sexual assault accusations.

On September 22, , Betsy DeVos , the Secretary of Education in the Trump administration , rescinded some Obama-era campus guidelines regarding campus sexual assault. The rescinded guidelines included: having a low standard of proof to establish guilt, a day investigation period, and not permitting mediation between involved parties. Some colleges and universities have taken additional steps to prevent sexual violence on campus.

These include educational programs designed to inform students about risk factors and prevention strategies to avoid victimization, bystander education programs which encourage students to identify and defuse situations that may lead to sexual assault , and social media campaigns to raise awareness about sexual assault.

It focuses on informing students of sexual assault on campus and how they too can get involved in the fight against sexual assault. The Bystander Intervention programs is a system many schools are promoting to help students to feel empowered and knowledgeable. The program provides skills to effectively assist in the prevention of sexual violence. This gives a specific to that students can use in preventing sexual violence, including naming and stopping situations that could lead to sexual violence before it happens, stepping in during an incident, and speaking out against ideas and behaviors that support sexual violence.

These findings have implications for college programs, suggesting that prevention efforts be tailored to the group for which the program is intended. According to Pryor et al. Research conducted by Pryor et al. Brazilians defined sexual harassment as innocuous seductive behaviors.

In this case, the certain student groups which have lower standards to the sexual assaults are easier to be assaulted. Levels of sexual education can differ depending on the country, which runs a risk of a lack of understanding of the domestic definitions of sexual assault and the legal repercussions. If a student is found to have committed sexual assault this can lead to their dismissal from the college or influence their visa status.

Some campuses provide orientation programs to international students within a few days of their arrival, where the school laws and solutions for dangerous solutions are covered. These programs may not take into consideration if the student is familiar with the topics being discussed or potential language or cultural barriers.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sexual assault of a student attending an institution of higher learning. Main article: Measures of campus sexual assault. Law portal. Retrieved 24 March National Institute of Justice. Retrieved 1 January Washington Post. Retrieved 22 September Retrieved 27 November United States Department of Education. Parra, Esteban 17 December The News Journal.

The Journal of Sex Research. Retrieved 19 September Retrieved 13 August Canadian Journal of Sociology.

Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. Hidden Marks: A study of women student's experiences of harassment, stalking, violence, and sexual assault PDF 2nd ed.

Retrieved 10 January Girden; Robert Kabacoff SAGE Publishing. New Dimensions in Women's Health 5th ed.

Sudbury, Massachusetts: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Department of Justice. Retrieved 15 January Estimating the Incidence of Rape and Sexual Assault. Retrieved 9 January The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 December National Criminal Justice Reference Service. Social Problems.

September Journal of Interpersonal Violence. The Sexualization of Childhood. December June Violence Against Women. Original pdf. Chicago Tribune. Tribune Publishing. February Violence and Victims. July JAMA Pediatrics.

American Journal of Health Studies. Also available as: Faculty Publications and Presentations. Paper 8. The Michigan Daily. College Crime. Union College. Retrieved 19 May Retrieved 26 December Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved 27 December American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law. Retrieved 27 July Knowing a sexual assault victim or perpetrator: A stratified random sample of undergraduates at one university. EBSCOhost, doi EBSCOhost, search. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, — Alcohol's role in sexual assault.

Watson Ed. Totowa, NJ: Humana. Live Science. Retrieved 23 May Journal of American College Health. Drug and Alcohol Review. NBC News. Retrieved 20 April Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology.

Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education. The New England Journal of Medicine. Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 26 February Durham, N. Retrieved 2 August That's rape, according to this university". The Daily Beast.

Archives of Sexual Behavior. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Psychology of Women Quarterly. Retrieved 12 March The Gendered Society Reader. Ontario: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 10 December But why are they involved at all? Retrieved 11 December Harvard Journal of Law and Gender.

Retrieved 2 May The New York Times. Retrieved 19 April Archived from the original on 28 January Retrieved 24 January Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. Retrieved 6 April Philadelphia Inquirer.

Daily Nebraskan. Washington Times. Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved 14 August In Renzetti, Claire M. Encyclopedia of Interpersonal Violence. SAGE Publications. Retrieved 22 April His Side". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Minding the Campus. Retrieved 24 April The Huffington Post.

Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved 8 March CBC News. Sexual assault happens everywhere and to women and men of all ages. Colleges that get federal funding are required to publicly report sexual assault. You cannot prevent sexual assault because violent or abusive behavior is always the responsibility of the person who is violent or abusive. However, you can take steps to be safer around others and help keep others safe from potential perpetrators: 5 , 6 , 7.

If you are sexually assaulted, it is not your fault, regardless of the circumstances. If you are in immediate danger, call If you are in a safe place, you can call to report the sexual assault to the police as soon as possible. If the sexual assault happened on campus or the person who harmed you was a student, you can also report it to school authorities for additional support.

The school is required to help you continue your education. Schools that receive federal funding may provide other forms of support, such as counseling or tutoring, if you need it because of a sexual assault on campus. Women who are sexually assaulted may face health problems that include depression , anxiety , and post-traumatic stress disorder.

But they may also have trouble reporting the assault or getting help they are entitled to from the school. Women may also see the person who harmed them regularly in classes, dorms, or other places on campus, which can make it harder to recover from the assault. This includes going to school authorities and getting help.

The risk of rape may be up to five times higher during a semester studying abroad than on a college campus in the United States. When studying abroad, you can follow the same tips that can help you be safer at your home campus. These include being aware of your surroundings, always going out and staying with a group, either not drinking or limiting your drinking to a level at which you still feel in control, and watching your drink at all times.

Before you go, check out information about the country in which you will be living on the U. Department of State website Students Abroad.

You can enroll in a program called the Smart Traveler Enrollment Program to get safety information and connect with the U. Sexual Assault Support and Help for Americans Abroad offers pre-travel information , tips for staying safe , and an international crisis line.

Kathleen C. Basile, Ph. Kathryn Jones, M. Sharon G. Smith, Ph. Department of Health and Human Services. Citation of the source is appreciated. This content is provided by the Office on Women's Health. Language Assistance Available. Skip to main content. Popular topics Vision and mission Leadership Programs and activities In your community Funding opportunities Internships and jobs View all pages in this section.

Home Relationships and Safety Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault on college campuses. Escape Click the escape button above to immediately leave this site if your abuser may see you reading it. Relationships and Safety Am I being abused? Domestic or intimate partner violence Sexual assault and rape Sexual assault Rape Sexual assault on college campuses Other types of violence and abuse against women Effects of violence against women Get help Help end violence against women Relationships and safety resources View A-Z health topics.

What men can do to help end sexual violence on campus Share this video link from End Rape on Campus that talks about how men on campus, especially men in fraternities, can help stop sexual violence. Subscribe To receive Violence Against Women email updates. Sexual assault on college campuses. Expand all. How common is sexual assault on college campuses?

Why is sexual assault on college campuses so common? Alcohol and drugs. Campus sexual assault often involves alcohol and drugs. Many young adults use alcohol or drugs for the first time during college. Using drugs or drinking too much alcohol can make you unaware of what is happening around you and to you. Reporting sexual assault. Only one in five college-age women who are sexually assaulted report the attack to the police. Peer pressure. College-age women often live with people their own age on campus, rather than parents or other older adults.

Students may feel peer pressure to participate in social activities like drinking, using drugs, going to parities, or engaging in sexual activities that make them uncomfortable. Being forced into unwanted sexual activity for social acceptance is a type of sexual coercion. What steps can I take to be safer on a college campus? However, you can take steps to be safer around others and help keep others safe from potential perpetrators: 5 , 6 , 7 Get to know someone well before spending time alone with him or her.

College is often about meeting new people and making new friends. But do not rely only on someone you just met to keep you safe. Go to parties or hangouts with friends. Arrive together, check in with each other, and leave together. Talk about your plans for the evening so that everyone knows what to expect. Meet first dates or new people in a public place. If you feel uncomfortable in any situation for any reason, leave. You are the only person who gets to say whether you feel safe.

Be aware of your alcohol or drug intake.

Know Your Rights on Campus: Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault under Title IX: AAUW

Campus sexual assault is the sexual assault , including rape , of a student while attending an institution of higher learning, such as a college or university. In response to charges that schools have poorly supported women who have complained of sexual assault, in the United States Department of Education issued a "Dear Colleague" letter to universities, advising academic institutions on various methods intended to reduce incidents of sexual assault on campuses.

There is currently no evidence that women who attend college are at a higher risk of being sexually assaulted than women of the same age who do not attend college. Studies that have examined sexual assault experiences among college students in western countries other than the U. Research consistently shows that the majority of rape and other sexual assault victims do not report their attacks to law enforcement. The National Crime Victimization Survey estimates that 6.

This is because many people who have experienced sexual violence will not label their experience that way, even if those experiences meet the legal definition of criminal sexual assault or rape.

There are three broad approaches used to explain sexual assault. The first approach, "individual determinants", stems from the psychological perspective of rape. Their psychological model states that men who display hostile masculinity traits e. Their findings have been replicated in college student samples and non-student adult samples Malamuth et al. Further, narcissistic entitlement and trait aggression have been identified as major individual risk factors for rape LeBreton et al.

The " rape culture " approach stems from second-wave feminism [23] and focuses on how rape is pervasive and normalized due to societal attitudes about gender and sexuality. The third approach to explaining rape identifies the contexts in which that rape and sexual assault occur. For instance practices, rules, distribution or resources, and the ideologies of the university or college can promote unhealthy beliefs about gender and can in turn contribute to campus sexual assault. Of the 1, respondents to a survey at Liberty University , 8.

Both athletic males and fraternities have higher rates of sexual assault. Student athletes commit one-third of all campus sexual assaults at a rate six times higher than non-athletes. In another article by Antonia Abby she found that there are certain characteristics that male perpetrators that put them at risk of committing sexual assault.

The commonality between the two instances are the involvement of alcohol. Assailants are not limited to these two situations however there can also be a connection made in regards to their status in school. Out of 1, students who identified as TGQN , By comparison, Many victims completely or partially blame themselves for the assault because they are embarrassed and shamed, or fear not being believed.

These elements may lead to underreporting of the crime. According to research, "myths, stereotypes, and unfounded beliefs about male sexuality, in particular male homosexuality," contribute to underreporting among males. In addition, "male sexual assault victims have fewer resources and greater stigma than do female sexual assault victims. Incidents of sexual assault among LGBTQ students may be influenced by a variety of situational factors.

Researchers have identified a variety of factors that contribute to heightened levels of sexual assault on college campuses.

Individual factors such as alcohol consumption, impersonal sexual behavior and hostile attitudes toward women , environmental and cultural factors such as peer group support for sexual aggression, gender role stress and skewed gender ratios , as well inadequate enforcement efforts by campus police and administrators have been offered as potential causes. In addition, general cultural notions relating to victim-blaming are at play as the majority of assaults are never reported due to shame or fear.

This time period is often referred to as the "red zone" by sexual assault researchers and in sexual assault prevention materials. Both victims and perpetrators of sexual assault frequently report that they were consuming alcohol when the assault occurred. These effects are exacerbated by peer influence about how to act when drinking.

The increase of assaults on college campuses can be attributed to the social expectation that students participate in alcohol consumption. The peer norms on American college campuses are to drink heavily, to act in an uninhibited manner and to engage in casual sex. Some have noted gender-specific and variable standards for intoxicated consent.

In a recent lawsuit against Duke university, a Duke administrator, when asked whether verbal consent need be mutual when both participants are drunk, stated, "Assuming it is a male and female, it is the responsibility in the case of the male to gain consent before proceeding with sex.

In one study [34] that Antonia Abby describes in her article, a group of men students listen to an audiotape recording of a date rape. The findings suggest that intoxicated men may project their own sexual arousal onto a women, missing or ignoring her active protest.

A study conducted by Elizabeth Armstrong, Laura Hamilton and Brian Sweeney in suggests that it is the culture and gendered nature of fraternity parties that create an environment with greater likelihood of sexual assault.

Fulfilling the role of the parties produced vulnerability on the part of women, which some men exploit to extract non-consensual sex. Alcohol is a factor in many rapes and other sexual assaults. As the study by Armstrong, Hamilton, and Sweeney suggests it might be one of the reasons for the under-reporting of rape where because of having been drinking victims fear that they will be ignored or not believed. Individual and peer group attitudes have also been identified as an important risk factor for the perpetration of sexual assault among college aged men in the United States.

Both the self-reported proclivity to commit rape in a hypothetical scenario, as well as self-reported history of sexual aggression, positively correlate with the endorsement of rape tolerant or rape supportive attitudes in men. According to sociologist Michael Kimmel , rape-prone campus environments exist throughout several university and college campuses in North America.

Kimmel defines these environments as "…one in which the incidence of rape is reported by observers to be high, or rape is excused as a ceremonial expression of masculinity, or rape as an act by which men are allowed to punish or threaten women. In the United States, Title IX prohibits gender-based discrimination at any school or university that receives federal funding.

Under Title IX, schools are required to make efforts to prevent sexual violence and harassment, and to have policies in place for investigating complaints and protecting victims. The best known articulation that rape and sexual assault is a broader problem was the book Against Our Will. As early as the s, campus rape was considered an under-reported crime. Reasons included to the involvement of alcohol, reluctance of students to report the crime, and universities not addressing the issue.

A pivotal change in how universities handle reporting stemmed from the rape and murder of Jeanne Clery in her campus dormitory. The Clery Act requires that all schools in the U.

A study by the National Institute of Justice found that only about a third of U. Numerous colleges in the United States have come under federal investigation for their handling of sexual assault cases, described by civil rights groups as discriminatory and inappropriate. Mandatory reporting of campus sexual assaults has recently been included in proposed bills. In March , the National Alliance to End Sexual Violence NAESV conducted a survey in conjunction with Know Your IX regarding the right of the survivor to choose to report the assault to police authorities versus legislation which would enforce legal action upon reporting sexual assault to a university or college.

In an effort to police student conduct, some states such as New York and Connecticut and many schools require "affirmative consent" commonly known as "yes means yes". The policies require students to receive ongoing and active consent throughout any sexual encounter. Schools can include drug or alcohol intoxication in their considerations of whether a student granted consent under this policy such that a "drunk" student cannot give consent. These policies are challenging to students because non-verbal cues are difficult to interpret and the policies are confusing.

In May , American Law Institute overwhelmingly rejected a proposal to endorse affirmative consent which would have otherwise required it to be included in the penal codes. In view of what they considered poor responses by institutions to protect women, some student and other activists groups started raising awareness of the threats and harm women experience on campus.

The first " Take Back the Night " march took place in in San Francisco, and then spread to many college campuses. Some individuals have become notable activists.

Lena Sclove, a student at Brown University , made headlines for saying that a fellow student, who reportedly sexually assaulted her, was not sufficiently punished after he received a one-year suspension. He was found responsible under the university's preponderance of the evidence standard. Such cases have led to controversy and concerns regarding presumption of innocence and due process , and have also highlighted the difficulties that universities face in balancing the rights of the accuser and the rights of the accused when dealing with sexual assault complaints.

Our Turn, a Canadian student-driven initiative to end campus sexual violence, began in The initiative was launched by three Carleton University students, including Jade Cooligan Pang, and soon spread to 20 student unions in eight Canadian provinces. In October , Our Turn released a survey evaluating the sexual assault policies of 14 Canadian universities along with an action plan for student unions to support survivors of sexual assault.

In , the United States Department of Education sent a letter, known as the "Dear Colleague" letter, to the presidents of all colleges and universities in the United States re-iterating that Title IX requires schools to investigate and adjudicate cases of sexual assault on campus.

The letter expressly forbade the use of the stricter "clear and convincing evidence" standard used at some schools previously. In , a survey of college and university assault policies conducted at the request of the U.

However it also created a climate where the accused rights are considered secondary. In , President Barack Obama established the White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault , which published a report reiterating the interpretation of Title IX in the "Dear Colleague" letter and proposing a number of other measures to prevent and respond to sexual assault on campus, such as campus climate surveys and bystander intervention programs.

Shortly thereafter, the Department of Education released a list of 55 colleges and universities across the country that it was investigating for possible Title IX violations in relation to sexual assault.

Department of Education for their handling of rape and sexual assault allegations. The campaign partnered with many organizations and college campuses to get students to take a pledge to end sexual assault on campuses.

The Department of Education's approach toward adjudicating sexual assault accusations has been criticized for failing to consider the possibility of false accusations, mistaken identity, or errors by investigators.

Critics claim that the "preponderance of the evidence" standard required by Title IX is not an appropriate basis for determining guilt or innocence, and can lead to students being wrongfully expelled.

Campus hearings have also been criticized for failing to provide many of the due process protections that the United States Constitution guarantees in criminal trials, such as the right to be represented by an attorney and the right to cross-examine witnesses. In , FIRE criticized Stanford University after it held a male student responsible for a sexual assault for an incident where both parties had been drinking.

In May , the National Center for Higher Education Risk Management, a law firm that advises colleges on liability issues, issued an open letter to all parties involved in the issue of rape on campus. While acknowledging appreciation for the complexities involved in changing campus culture, the letter offered direct advice to each party involved in campus hearings, outlining the improvements NCHERM considers necessary to continue the progress achieved since the issuance of the "Dear Colleague" letter in In early , the group RAINN Rape and Incest National Network wrote an open letter to the White House calling for campus hearings to be de-emphasized due to their lack of accountability for survivors and victims of sexual violence.

They often offer the worst of both worlds: they lack protections for the accused while often tormenting victims. Many institutions today are facing Title IX investigations due to the alleged lack of response on their campus to sexual assault.

Many campuses are facing the same challenges on how to address the problem of sexual assault and are taking measures to do so, by hiring teams for addressing Title IX complaints.

In October , 28 members of the Harvard Law School Faculty co-signed a letter decrying the change in the way reports of sexual harassment are being processed. In February , 16 members of the University of Pennsylvania Law School Faculty co-signed a similar letter of their own. In response to concerns, in the White House Task Force provided new regulations requiring schools to permit the accused to bring advisers and be clearer about their processes and how they determine punishments.

In addition to concerns about legal due process, which colleges currently do not have to abide, the push for stronger punishments and permanent disciplinary records on transcripts can prevent students found responsible from ever completing college or seeking graduate studies. Even for minor sexual misconduct offenses, the inconsistent and sometimes "murky" notes on transcripts can severely limit options.

Some critics of these policies, such as libertarian critics of feminism Cathy Young , Christina Hoff Sommers and Laura Kipnis , have characterized the concerns about sexual assault on college campuses as a moral panic. Since the issuance of the "Dear Colleague" letter, a number of lawsuits have been filed against colleges and universities by male students alleging that their universities violated their rights over the course of adjudicating sexual assault accusations.

On September 22, , Betsy DeVos , the Secretary of Education in the Trump administration , rescinded some Obama-era campus guidelines regarding campus sexual assault.

Sexual assault on college campus

Sexual assault on college campus