The cause and pathogenesis is unknown. Diagnosis is assisted with closed patch testing to standard series, cosmetic series, fragrance series and patients' personal products. Facial pigment change cause Persons of colour will soon comprise a majority of the international and domestic U. Finding support will go a long way in helping you cope. A systematic review.
Sarah michelle gellar peeing. What is hyperpigmentation?
Some causes, such as birthmarks, are not harmful and may not require treatment. If your healthcare provider suspects that an underlying condition is causing your discolored skin patches, they will order certain diagnostic tests to pinpoint the cause. Web Design - Mode Ten Designs. What Is Dermatitis? Additional information. Make sure to notify your healthcare provider about any sunburns and other skin injuries. What causes skin pigmentation? The skin discoloration Facial pigment change cause be resolved with medical treatments or home remedies, or chnage combination of treatments. Remedies for Dark Elbows. This pigmejt inflammation throughout the Facial pigment change cause, resulting in various symptoms, including swelling and redness. In a trial involving trained cyclists, potato puree and carbohydrate gel showed equal ability to sustain blood glucose and racing performance. Visit www. If you are concerned about any medication contributing to this, it is worth discussing it with your doctor prior to discontinuing the medication. Other Facial pigment change cause lightening agents include kojic acid, arbutin or azelaic acid.
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- Discolored skin patches are irregular areas where there are changes in skin color.
- Dark pigments, especially larger patches along the cheeks and forehead can affect self-esteem and require us to use thick make-up coverage in an effort to conceal these pigments.
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Structural and functional differences in the skin, as well as the influence of cultural practices, produce variances in skin disease and presentation based on skin type.
In the skin of colour population, dyschromia is a growing concern, and a top chief complaint when patients present to the physician. A thorough understanding of the aetiology and management strategies of facial hyperpigmentation is of importance in caring for those afflicted and also in the development of new therapies. Skin of colour, also known as ethnic skin, constitutes a wide range of racial and ethnic groups traditionally referring to persons of African, Asian, Native American, Middle Eastern and Hispanic backgrounds.
Structural and functional differences in the skin, as well as the influence of cultural practices, produce variances in skin disease, presentation and treatment based on skin type.
In skin of colour, the amount and epidermal distribution of melanin is an important biological feature. Melanin is the major determinant of colour in the skin. The concentration of epidermal melanin in melanosomes is double in darker skin types compared with lightly pigmented skin types. Given these functional and structural differences, common conditions may require special considerations in ethnic skin.
Additionally, there are many skin conditions relatively unique to persons with skin of colour. The aim of this review is to summarize what is currently known about facial hyperpigmentation as it relates to those with skin of colour. History of exacerbation with pregnancy, hormonal therapy such as oral contraceptives, and intense sun exposure.
Oral corticosteroids, antibiotics e. We identified relevant articles by the systematic search of scientific and medical electronic search engines PubMed, — Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation PIH refers to the darkening of skin that occurs after an inflammatory eruption or cutaneous injury. Patients of darker skin are predisposed to this pigment alteration. Postinflammatory changes can occur both in the epidermis and dermis. In dermal PIH, a damaged basement membrane allows melanin to enter the dermis, where it is phagocytosed by dermal macrophages, referred to as melanophages.
Macrophages may also migrate into the epidermis, phagocytose melanosomes, and then return to the dermis. As the skin in darker patients recovers from an acute inflammatory disease, it may become hyperpigmented PIH or hypopigmented known as postinflammatory hypopigmentation. Lightening or darkening of the skin is associated with many primary disorders including but not limited to discoid lupus erythematosus, seborrhoeic dermatitis, tinea versicolor, atopic dermatitis and sarcoidosis Fig.
History may include any type of prior inflammation or injury, e. Physical examination findings include small to large hyperpigmented macules and patches of varying size in any distribution. Although usually a clinical diagnosis, difficult cases can be aided with a biopsy for histopathological evaluation.
Disorders such as melasma, morphoea, atrophoderma and other rarer aetiologies should be considered in patients without evidence of preceding inflammation by history or examination. The time can take years and can be psychologically distressing. Darkening of facial skin tone, even outside of extensive sun exposure, can be seen in mature dark skin. Maturational dyschromia, or a general uneven tone, can be described as diffuse hyperpigmentation that generally occurs on the lateral forehead and cheekbones Fig.
Maturational dyschromia may be misdiagnosed as melasma, acanthosis nigricans or PIH. Pigmentation varies, often dependent upon the causal agent.
Diagnosis is assisted with closed patch testing to standard series, cosmetic series, fragrance series and patients' personal products. Photopatch testing can also be considered. A rarer aetiology of facial hyperpigmentation and probably a variant of Riehl melanosis is termed erythrose peribuccale pigmentaire de Brocq. A similar hyperpigmentation has been reported in patients with subsiding perioral dermatitis secondary to topical steroids.
It is a common disorder of hyperpigmentation affecting millions worldwide. Exacerbating factors include pregnancy, hormonal therapy, such as oral contraceptives, and intense sun exposure. Depending on the location of melanin, melasma can be differentiated into different types. Mixed type occurs when there is melanin in both the epidermis and dermis, and the term indeterminate type may be used when it is difficult to classify even with the assistance of Wood's light. Treatment includes a combination approach with strict sun protection, cosmetic camouflage, topical lightening agents, chemical peels and laser therapy.
Laser and light therapies are promising; however, like chemical peeling agents, carry the risk of PIH. Lastly, for women who note the onset of melasma after beginning oral contraceptives, the medication should be stopped if possible. Exogenous ochronosis occurs when foreign substances cause homogentisic acid to be deposited in the dermis, causing macular and papular hyperpigmentation.
It is a rare disease, characterized by an asymptomatic hyperpigmentation of the face, sides and back of the neck, back and extensor surfaces Fig. It is relatively uncommon within the U.
According to a literature review, 28 there were cases of exogenous ochronosis reported worldwide, only 22 of these were reported from the U. Treatment is difficult. Acanthosis nigricans is characterized by hyperpigmented, velvety plaques often in a symmetric distribution. Patients typically present with a darkening and thickening of the skin.
No treatment of choice exists for acanthosis nigricans. The goal of therapy is to correct the underlying disease process. Topical medications that have been effective in some cases of acanthosis nigricans include keratolytics e. The cause and pathogenesis is unknown. DPN tends to have an earlier age of onset than that of seborrhoeic keratoses, but otherwise is similar and considered a variant of seborrhoeic keratosis.
They appear during adolescence and increase in size and number over time, peaking in the sixth decade. Usually the lesions are asymptomatic but can occasionally be pruritic or irritated.
The differential diagnosis includes seborrhoeic keratoses, acrochordons, melanocytic naevi, lentigines, verrucae and other adnexal tumours. Treatment is generally performed for cosmetic purposes and should be exercised with great care given the risks of dyspigmentation.
The lesions occur during infancy, with the majority presenting at birth, and also around puberty. The overall appearance is that of an irregularly demarcated, mottled patch. Size varies from a few centimetres to extensive unilateral and even occasional bilateral involvement. The eye and oral mucosa are not involved. Hori naevi may be misdiagnosed as melasma, lentigines or ephelides. Ephelides and lentigines are a common manifestation of sun exposure in white patients and less so in those with skin of colour.
Ephelides, or freckles, are the result of increased photoinduced melanogenesis and transport of an increased number of fully melanized melanosomes from melanocytes to keratinocytes. They may increase in number and distribution and show a tendency for confluence, but they can fade over time with ageing.
Ephelides are benign and show no propensity for malignant transformation. EDP, or ashy dermatosis, is an asymptomatic, slowly progressive eruption characterized by dermal pigmentation in circumscribed areas. There is no gender predilection, and EDP usually presents during the second to third decade of life. The long axis of lesions may follow skin cleavage lines. Lesions typically involve the trunk with spread to the neck, upper extremities and, sometimes, the face. Although usually asymptomatic, EDP may be mildly pruritic.
EDP can be difficult to diagnosis and may be confused with other entities including LPP, lichenoid drug eruption, infectious diseases e. EDP is very difficult to treat, and there is no consistently effective treatment.
Successful treatment with dapsone and clofazimine has been reported in small series. Topical therapies with corticosteroids and hydroquinone are generally of no benefit. The disease progresses slowly and usually does not regress in adults. Lesions are symmetric in the majority; however, they can present in a unilateral, linear fashion. In one series of patients with LPP, 19 were also noted to have typical lesions of lichen planus. The aetiology for LPP is unknown. Photodistribution suggests that UV radiation may play a pathogenic role.
Also, topical application of mustard oil which contains a potential photosensitizer, allyl isothiocyanate, and also amla oil have been proposed as possible inciting agents. LPP is a chronic disorder with exacerbations and remissions. Actinic lichen planus ALP represents a rare photodistributed variant of lichen planus and has also been reported under the names of lichen planus actinicus, lichen planus subtropicus, lichen planus tropicus and lichenoid melanodermatitis.
It has been observed worldwide; however, the majority of reported patients have been from Middle Eastern countries. The differential diagnosis of ALP includes photosensitive lichenoid drug eruptions, discoid lupus erythematosus, actinic prurigo, fixed drug eruption and polymorphous light eruption. Various therapies have been tried in ALP with variable outcomes, including topical and intralesional corticosteroids, antimalarials e.
The cause is unknown. Often patients have keratosis pilaris lesions on the trunk, with no history of related disorders or family history of atopy. Treatment has included isotretinoin, topical retinoids and hydroquinone. Although clinical regression is difficult to achieve and relapse is common, lesions have been noted to respond to treatment. All age groups have been affected. The pigmentation generally involves the centrofacial area.
Biopsy from hyperpigmented lesions shows an intact basal layer with diffuse hypermelanosis of the entire epidermis, suggesting an increased intraepidermal melanin dispersion and retention from the virus.
Facial hyperpigmentation can cause significant cosmetic disfigurement with subsequent emotional impact.
Because the majority of reports regarding treatment consist of small series of patients and anecdotes, it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of different forms of therapy.
In addition, although multiple options do currently exist, some therapies have come under increasing scrutiny, underscoring the need for research into pathogenesis and treatment. Those with skin types IV—VI need special considerations in preventing and treating various aetiologies of facial hyperpigmentation.
Popular in: Dermatology The best ways to get rid of acne scars What can cause sores or scabs on the scalp? We'll show you. These agents tend to block the formation of melanin. Just as the sun contributes to premature aging, research suggests that air pollution also has an impact on how the skin ages. Types of skin cancer. These tests may include:.
Facial pigment change cause. Introduction
Hyperpigmentation - Wikipedia
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We do not store details you enter into this form. Click here to return to the Medical News Today home page. Skin contains melanin, which is the pigment that gives the skin its color. Melanin is also responsible for hair and eye color. Patches of discolored skin are noticeable because they differ from a person's normal skin tone. They may be lighter, darker, or a different color, such as red, gray, or blue.
It is important that people with this symptom understand the cause of their discolored skin patches in case treatment is necessary. This article explores the various causes of discolored skin patches and explains which of them require treatment.
Birthmarks are patches of discoloration that people have when they are born. Some types of birthmark fade over time, while others may be permanent. Birthmarks are either vascular or pigmented. Vascular birthmarks are red, and they occur due to abnormal blood vessels in the skin. Pigmented birthmarks are generally white, brown, blue, or gray. They result from a problem with the melanin in the skin. If a person has lighter or darker skin patches, this may signify a skin pigmentation disorder.
Type of skin pigmentation disorder include:. This is a common skin condition that usually affects facial skin and causes brown patches. Triggers of melasma can include sun exposure and hormonal changes. This disease can affect any part of the body. Sometimes, it will also change a person's hair color.
The exact cause of vitiligo is unknown, but a problem with the immune system may be responsible. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation. This is a temporary increase or decrease in skin pigment following skin trauma, such as a blister or burn. People with albinism do not produce enough melanin. This leads to little or no pigment in the skin, hair, or eyes.
Albinism is a genetic disorder, meaning that a person inherits a faulty gene from one or both of their parents. Undiagnosed or untreated diabetes can also cause changes in the skin, such as:. If discolored skin patches appear suddenly and then disappear, there may be a simple explanation. If a new patch of discolored skin appears and does not go away, it is best to see a doctor.
It is also important to seek medical attention if a mole changes size, shape, or texture. The doctor may examine the affected skin under a lamp.
They may also need to carry out further tests, such as blood tests and a skin biopsy. The skin biopsy will involve the doctor taking a small sample of skin and examining it under a microscope. If a person has an underlying health condition, the doctor will recommend the best course of treatment for that condition. Treating the underlying condition often resolves any associated skin problems.
If the underlying cause is skin cancer, it is vital that the person has treatment as soon as possible. Birthmarks and skin pigmentation disorders do not usually require treatment. However, some people may wish to have treatment for cosmetic reasons.
Treatment options include laser treatment, chemical peels, and topical creams. Lemon juice or castor oil may also help to reduce the appearance of discolored skin patches. Alternatively, people can use makeup to camouflage the affected skin. However, sun protection may reduce the risk of melasma, sunburn, and skin cancer. People can protect themselves from the sun by:.
There are many possible causes of discolored skin patches. Some causes, such as birthmarks, are not harmful and may not require treatment. Others, such as skin cancer and cyanosis, are likely to require immediate treatment. It is essential to see a doctor if any new discolored patches of skin appear or if existing moles change in any way. This helps to make early diagnosis and treatment possible, which often leads to a better outlook.
Article last reviewed by Thu 26 July All references are available in the References tab. Aaron, D. Candidiasis mucocutaneous. Diabetes: 12 warning signs that appear on your skin. Different kinds of birthmarks. Nevus simplex. Tinea versicolor. Types of skin cancer. Vascular birthmarks.
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By Lana Burgess. Vitiligo is a skin pigmentation disorder that causes patches of lighter skin. What is hypopigmentation?
Certain conditions or injuries can cause hypopigmentation, which is the loss of skin color. Learn about what causes hypopigmentation and how to treat it here. Ringworm causes ring-shaped marks on the skin that are scaly, dry, or itchy. A person should see a doctor if the discolored area of skin does not go away.