This is a list of vacuum tubes or thermionic valves , and low-pressure gas-filled tubes , or discharge tubes. Before the advent of semiconductor devices, thousands of tube types were used in consumer electronics. Many industrial, military or otherwise professional tubes were also produced. Only a few types are still used today, mainly in high-power, high-frequency applications. Receiving tubes have heaters or filaments intended for direct battery operation, parallel operation off a dedicated winding on a supply transformer, or series string operation on transformer-less sets.
Nos El Above: In the s General Electric management was excited when they started producing high quality vacuum tubes which were a fraction of the size of past tubes. In the early years of the 21st vcauum there has been renewed interest in vacuum tubes, this time with the Vintagee emitter formed on a flat silicon substrate, as in integrated Latino seduction Vintage vacuum tube and valves. European Union. You'll receive email and Feed alerts when new items arrive. These have much smaller ratios of their charge to their mass.
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How Does a Vacuum Tube Work | Valve Theory | Electronics Notes
This is a list of vacuum tubes or thermionic valves , and low-pressure gas-filled tubes , or discharge tubes. Before the advent of semiconductor devices, thousands of tube types were used in consumer electronics. Many industrial, military or otherwise professional tubes were also produced. Only a few types are still used today, mainly in high-power, high-frequency applications.
Receiving tubes have heaters or filaments intended for direct battery operation, parallel operation off a dedicated winding on a supply transformer, or series string operation on transformer-less sets. The system assigned numbers with the base form "1A21", and is therefore also referred to as the "1A21 system". Often designations that differed only in their initial numerals would be identical except for heater characteristics.
For examples see below. A four-digit system was maintained by the EIA for special industrial, military and professional vacuum and gas-filled tubes, and all sorts of other devices requiring to be sealed off against the external atmosphere. Some manufacturers preceded the EIA number with a manufacturer's code:. Media related to Eimac vacuum tubes at Wikimedia Commons. This system is very descriptive of what type of device triode, diode, pentode etc.
Further Roman letters, up to three, describe the device followed by one to four numerals assigned in a semi-chronological order of type development within number ranges assigned to different base types. If two devices share the same type designation other than the first letter e.
ECL82, PCL82, UCL82 they will usually be identical except for heater specifications; however there are exceptions, particularly with output types for example, both the PL84 and UL84 differ significantly from the EL84 in certain major characteristics, although they have the same pinout and similar power rating.
However, device numbers do not reveal any similarity between different type families; e. Pro Electron maintained a subset of the M-P system after their establishment in , with only the first letters E , P for the heater, only the second letters A , B , C , D , E , F , H , K , L , M , Y , Z for the type, and issuing only three-digit numbers starting with 1 , 2 , 3 , 5 , 8 , 9 for the base.
They were usually special-quality versions of standard types. While the E80F pentode was a high quality development of the EF80, they were not pin-compatible and could not be interchanged without rewiring the socket the E80F is commonly sought after as a high quality replacement for the similar EF86 type in guitar amplifiers.
The letters "CC" indicated the two triodes and the "F", the single pentode inside these types. A few special-quality tubes did not have a standard equivalent, e.
Many of these types had gold-plated base pins and special heater configurations inside the nickel cathode tube designed to reduce hum pickup from the A. The mica spacers used in "SQ" and "PQ" types did not possess sharp protrusions which could flake off and become loose inside the bulb, possibly lodging between the grids and thus changing the characteristics of the device.
Later special-quality tubes had not base and function swapped but were assigned a 4-digit number,  such as ECC or ED, the first digit of which again denoting the base:. In use since at least , this system was maintained by Pro Electron after their establishment in The first letter or letter pair, in the case of a dual-system device indicates the general type:. The following letter indicates the filament or cathode type, or the fill gas or other construction detail.
The coding for vacuum devices differs between Philips and other Continental European manufacturers on the one hand and its Mullard subsidiary on the other. The following letter indicates the photocathode type:. The first incarnation of La Compagnie des Lampes produced the TM tube since and defined one of the first French systems;   not to be confused with Compagnie des Lampes , "French Mazda", see below.
First number: Heater or filament rating . The British GEC — Marconi—Osram designation from the s uses one or two letter s followed by two numerals and sometimes by a second letter identifying different versions of a particular type. Note: K inkless T etrode beam power tubes are listed under other letter tubes - KT.
Media related to Marconi vacuum tubes at Wikimedia Commons. This was phased out after when Mullard adopted the Mullard—Philips scheme. Examples: . Media related to Mullard vacuum tubes at Wikimedia Commons. The system consisted of one letter followed by 3 or 4 digits. It was phased out after when Philips adopted the Mullard—Philips scheme. Examples: . Media related to Philips vacuum tubes at Wikimedia Commons. Media related to Philips gas discharge tubes at Wikimedia Commons.
First number: Type . Valvo de , it was a major German electronic components manufacturer from to ; a Philips subsidiary since , Valvo was one of the predecessors of NXP Semiconductors.
The system consisted of one or two letters followed by 3 or 4 digits. It was phased out after when Valvo adopted the Mullard—Philips scheme. First letter s : Type . Media related to Valvo vacuum tubes at Wikimedia Commons. Media related to Valvo gas discharge tubes at Wikimedia Commons.
Media related to Lamina vacuum tubes at Wikimedia Commons. Media related to Lamina gas discharge tubes at Wikimedia Commons. Rundfunk- und Fernmelde-Technik de , sv was the brand of a group of telecommunications manufacturers in the German Democratic Republic.
The designation consists of a group of three letters and a group of three or four digits. Next letter s : Type, subset of the Mullard—Philips system. Next letter s : Type, subset of the Mullard—Philips scheme. Media related to Tesla vacuum tubes at Wikimedia Commons. Media related to Tesla gas discharge tubes at Wikimedia Commons.
The Tungsram system was composed of a maximum of three letters and three or four digits. Media related to Tungsram vacuum tubes at Wikimedia Commons. Vacuum tubes produced in the former Soviet Union and in present-day Russia are designated in Cyrillic. Some confusion has been created in transliterating these designations to Latin. The first system was introduced in It consisted of one or two letters designating system type and, optionally, type of cathode , a hyphen, then a sequentially assigned number with up to 3 digits.
Petersburg, Russia. Examples: . The second element is a Cyrillic letter specifying the type of device. The third element is a sequentially assigned number that distinguishes between different devices of the same type. The fourth element denotes the type of envelope. This usually implies construction differences, not just selection from regular quality production.
There is another designation system for professional tubes such as transmitter ones. The first element designates function. The next elements varies in interpretation. A letter may be attached to designate water cooling no letter designates a radiation cooled device.
For transmitting tubes in this system, the second element starts with a hyphen, a sequentially assigned number, then an optional letter specifying cooling method.
For phototubes and photomultipliers, the second element is a sequential number and then a letter code identifying vacuum or gas fill and the type of cathode.
A letter: Structure and usage . Then a hyphen "-" , followed by a sequentially assigned number or the designation of the American original. Examples: . JIS C was published in and modified in and . This system prefixes a three- or four-digit number with the letters "CV", meaning "civilian valve" i. Note: The numbers identify special-quality valves though SQ valves CV numbered before that rule came in retain their original CV number.
This part-identification system ensures that every particular spare part not merely thermionic valves receives a unique stock number across the whole of NATO irrespective of the source, and hence is not held inefficiently as separate stores. One system prefixes a three-digit number with the letters "VT", presumably meaning "Vacuum Tube". The numbers following these prefixes can be "special" four-digit numbers, or domestic two- or three-digit numbers or simply the domestic North American "RETMA" numbering system.
Like the British military system, these have many direct equivalents in the civilian types. Confusingly, the British also had two entirely different "VT" nomenclatures, one used by the Royal Air Force see the preceding section and the other used by the General Post Office , responsible for post and telecommunications at the time, where it may have stood for "valve, telephone"; none of these schemes corresponded in any way with each other.
Various numeral-only systems exist. These tend to be used for devices used in commercial or industrial equipment. Three- and four-digit numeral-only systems were maintained by R. Devices in the low s tend to be transmitter output types, those in the higher s are not vacuum tubes, but gas-filled rectifiers and thyratrons , and those in the s tend to be special-purpose and high-frequency devices. Use was not rigorously systematic: the had variants , , and W.
There are quite a number of these systems from different geographical realms, such as those used on devices from contemporary Russian and Chinese production. Other compound numbering systems were used to mark higher-reliability types used in industrial or commercial applications.
Computers and telecommunication equipment also required tubes of greater quality and reliability than for domestic and consumer equipment. Note: Typecode explained above. The following tubes were used in post-World War II walkie-talkies and pocket-sized portable radios.
All have 1. Some specify which end of the filament is to be powered by the positive side of the filament power supply usually a battery. All have glass bodies that measure from 0.