The modern human was born in Africa and it is from that black human being that all people generated. So, how did different facial traits and skin colors appear? From Tumai to Omo 1: birth of the human being. Until 65 million years ago, a species ruled the Earth: dinosaurs. Their extinction by an asteroid which collided with the planet allowed the emergence of small mammals.
Part I: Hard tissue. As a consequence, in ancient Europe, the body had to get rid Origin of african facial features melanin. As I walked the streets of Windhoek, the capital of newly independent Namibia, I saw black Herero people and black Ovambo; I saw Nama, a group quite unlike the blacks in appearance; I saw whites, descendants of recent European immigrants; and outside Windhoek I saw the last of the formerly widespread Kalahari Bushmen struggling for survival. The Ofodile classification scheme 5 was applied to our subjects, who were assigned to 1 Battle digimon game online the following 3 categories: African, Afro-Caucasian, and Afro-Indian. Our subjects were assigned to subcategories based on facial shape, nostril type, and width of the nasal tip. Pearson Prentice Hall.
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Homo sapiens bands moved into southern Asia from the Caucasus region Teens lying to parents about 50, years ago. Although there were subsequent back-and-forth migrations, faciwl boundaries tended to isolate the populations that evolved into the White race. In Whites, the nose tends to be long and narrow. They began to settle in South America by 12, years ago. The term "Negroid" is still used in certain disciplines such as forensic and physical anthropology. Black music. A North Italian from Lombardy, who, although brunet in hair color, conforms metrically and morphologically Origin of african facial features the Borreby standard. University Press, Oxford. This Afa- lou race bore with it a tendency to brachycephaly. The eyes may be considered windows into the soul, but according to some researchers, the rest of your facial features say something about youtoo. The predominant strain is Upper Palaeolithic.
Frontal A and lateral B views of the average African American face.
- That is, in the attractive face from any ethnic group the correlation with the mask is extremely high.
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- Race as an expression has been used in different contexts, viz.
- Negroid also known as Congoid  is a historical grouping of human beings, once purported to be an identifiable race and applied as a political class by another dominant 'non-negroid' culture.
In the United States , for example, the people identified as African Americans do not share a common set of physical characteristics. Features of African Americans vary from light skins, blue or gray eyes, and blond hair to dark skins, black eyes, and crinkly hair and include every range and combination of characteristics in between.
All this gives clear evidence of the socially arbitrary nature of race categories in North America. Some appear to have a mixture of Asian and African or European and African physical characteristics.
Others, such as Melanesians, can easily be mistaken for Africans or black Americans. Many Americans are recognizing that the social categories of race as evolved in the United States are inadequate for encompassing such peoples who, indeed, do not share the social history of racial minorities in the United States.
Spanish and Portuguese colonial societies exhibited very different attitudes toward physical differences. Even before Christopher Columbus set sail, the Mediterranean world had long been a world of heterogeneous peoples.
Africans, southern Europeans, and peoples of the Middle East have interacted and interbred over thousands of years, as long as humans have occupied these regions.
The Iberian peoples brought their customs and habits to the New World. Many Southeast Asians and Middle Easterners have found that they are frequently mistaken for blacks in America. Some American Indians are mistaken for Chinese, Japanese, or other Asian ethnic groups on the basis of their skin colour, eye structure, and hair colour and texture.
In like manner, many Arab Americans or Persians are thought to be Latinos. Sixth-generation Chinese Americans have American ethnicity; many know little or nothing about traditional Chinese culture, just as European Americans and African Americans may know little or nothing about the cultures of their ancestors.
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No one ethnic group as a whole is necessarily a closer match in general to the mask than any other. Foundations of Civilization in Tropical Africa. The earliest Neolithic invaders of the southern fringe of Europe were brunet Mediterraneans of small to moderate stature and moderate head size. Humans have a distinctive capacity for verbal communication. An excellent example of the Pontic Mediterranean type, except for an unusually small cranial vault.
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Race - “Race” and the reality of human physical variation | blogodengi.com
Frontal A and lateral B views of the average African American face. Surface landmarks are denoted. Explanation of the abbreviations is given in the first footnote to Table 1. Two-section facial profile. The average African American woman has a special facial height endocanthion-gnathion [en-gn] of less than the special head height vertex-endocanthion [v-en] , although the proportions are roughly equal.
Three-section facial profile. Average proportions are illustrated for African American women. The forehead height II trichion-nasion [tr-n] is roughly equal to the lower face height subnasale-gnathion [sn-gn]. Nose length nasion-subnasale [n-sn] is significantly shorter than both measures. Four-section facial profile. The average proportions illustrate that lower facial height subnasale-gnathion [sn-gn] is greater than special upper face height glabella-subnasale [g-sn] , which is greater than forehead height I trichion-glabella [tr-g].
Nasoaural proportion. The average African American woman has an ear length superaurale to subaurale [sa-sba] of greater than the nose length nasion-subnasale [n-sn]. The ratio is approximately Orbitonasal proportion. The average relationship for African American women is depicted. The ratio of interocular distance endocanthion-endocanthion [en-en] to alar width alare-alare [al-al] is approximately Nasofacial proportion.
The relationship depicted is the average for African American women. Twenty-eight percent of the facial width zygion-zygion [zy-zy] is represented by the nose width alare-alare [al-al]. Nasoaural inclination. Arch Facial Plast Surg. From the Bobby R. Differences within the African American population are sought. One-way analysis of variance, The nose and ear have greater angles of inclination.
The average African American woman does not fit the neoclassical standard of facial proportion. These normal proportions are used to critique the face during consultation for rejuvenative or cosmetic changes. Facial analysis and proportions are well described for North American white subjects. These canons describe the aesthetic proportional relationships of the face and are the foundation on which modern facial analysis is based.
Often, the African American patient is compared with the white patient when the face is analyzed, despite inherent differences in physical appearance. Several studies have evaluated anthropometric differences between racial groups. Nasal analysis has been examined in both the African American and Latino groups. Although anthropometric analysis of the African American and black Caribbean faces was first reported by Farkas et al, 11 proportional analysis, applications to facial analysis, and subgroups within the population were not noted.
This study assesses the differences in facial proportion between young African American and North American Caucasian women. Average anthropometric data for young African American women are presented. Subcategorization of the sample population of African American women is discussed.
One hundred eight African American female volunteers participated in this study, which was approved by our institutional review board. Subjects included in the study were required to be 18 through 30 years of age to minimize the effects of aging on the facial proportions.
Standard photographs of the face were obtained, including the frontal, right and left lateral, right and left oblique, and base views. Photographs were analyzed for face shape, classification as described by Ofodile et al 5 hereafter referred to as the Ofodile classification , nostril shape, and distinguishing characteristics. All measurements were obtained by the same investigator J. Surface landmarks were noted on the face before taking standard anthropometric measurements Figure 1.
Linear measurements are reported in millimeters, and inclinations are expressed in degrees. Data were entered on spreadsheets and analyzed using commercially available software SPSS version 8. We used Differences between subgroup means of our sample population were assessed using t tests and 1-way analysis of variance. One hundred twelve African American women were enrolled in the study; of these, 4 were excluded because of failure to meet the inclusion criteria.
The average height and weight were A significant difference existed between the African American and the North American Caucasian norms in 13 of the 16 measures taken. No one subject fit all of the average measures or proportions. Very few subjects fit the neoclassical canons. Compliance with the 2-section facial profile canon I was noted in very few subjects.
None of the subjects met the criteria for the 3-section facial profile canon II. The average relationship of canon II is illustrated in Figure 3. All of the subjects had a lower facial height and a forehead height II of greater than the nose length. Lower facial height is greater than the forehead height II in approximately one third of subjects. None of the subjects fulfilled the proportional criteria for the 4-section facial profile canon III.
Lower facial height was always greater than the height of the calva Figure 4. In approximately a quarter of the subjects, the forehead height I was greater than the special upper facial height.
The special upper facial height was smaller than the lower facial height in three quarters of the subjects. Nasoaural proportion, as established by neoclassical canon IV, was found in very few subjects. Assessment of orbitonasal proportion canon V showed that alar width was rarely equal to or was less than the interocular distance. The differences between these subgroups were a few millimeters. Naso-oral proportion canon VII was present in very few subjects.
A variety of classification schemes were assigned to each subject to determine whether a classification scheme could be used to subcategorize subjects. The Ofodile classification scheme 5 was applied to our subjects, who were assigned to 1 of the following 3 categories: African, Afro-Caucasian, and Afro-Indian. The anthropometric means of each group were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. However, no anthropometric measures were different between Afro-Caucasian and Afro-Indian subtypes.
Subjects were also subjectively divided according to overall facial shape. Analysis revealed 2 measures, interocular distance and nasal bridge inclination, to be the only differences when comparing facial shape. After subjective analysis of the photographs, we developed a classification scheme based on assessment of the nasal starting point, subjective analysis of dorsal height, and the shape of the dorsal profile convex, concave, or straight.
A high dorsum is defined as one with a nasal starting point at, or cephalad to, the level of the endocanthion with a convex or straight dorsum that projects from the face. A low dorsum has a nasal starting point below the level of the endocanthion, with a dorsum that is straight or concave, and a low dorsum has very little projection from the face.
Analysis of the difference between these 2 groups based on the anthropometric measures obtained revealed the following 5 measures that were significantly different: special face height, nose length, forehead height I, special upper face height, and nasal bridge inclination Table 3.
Analysis of the face is a preliminary and important step in the approach to the patient who presents for facial plastic and reconstructive surgery. The extensive variability in the human face ensures its individuality. Although the compilation of facial features of African American women is diverse, our study shows that the average young African American female face differs significantly from the North American Caucasian female face. Thirteen of the 16 measures were significantly different from those of the North American Caucasian face.
Although the special head height was shorter for African American women, the forehead heights I and II were longer and the height of the calva was shorter. Nose length was shorter for African American women, as was ear length. Alar width and eye-fissure width were greater in African American women; however, facial width was not significantly different between groups. The mouth width was greater and ear length was shorter. Although some of these measures have a difference of only 2 mm, the overall composition of the values yields a distinctly different appearance.
The neoclassical canons were originally formulated by scholars and artists of the Renaissance and were based on classical Greek canons to define the relationships between various areas of the head and face as a guide for artists. They remain as the foundation on which modern facial analysis is based.
Canon IX relates proportions of the angles of inclination. Comparison of our data with the neoclassical canons reveals that very few African American subjects fit the established proportions.
Likewise, young North American Caucasian women rarely fit them. The illustrations are drawn to scale and are based on the proportions of the average African American woman. Facial analysis of the African American woman has evolved through several studies.
Ofodile and Bokhari 6 conducted an exploratory study that included physical examination, photographs, and anthropometric measurements of the African American nose in 80 men and women ranging in age from 18 to 87 years. This classification was designed to bring order to the wide variations of morphologic features and anatomy seen in the African American nose.
Anthropometric measurements showed variations according to nasal type, with African noses being the shortest and widest; Afro-Caucasian, the narrowest; and Afro-Indian, the longest. A shortcoming of that study was failure to limit the age range of the subjects. Advanced age causes significant changes in the appearance of the nose, including nasal elongation, tip ptosis, and loss of tip support.
Attempts at subcategorizing our subjects based on the Ofodile classification 5 proved to be difficult, especially when differentiating the Afro-Indian and Afro-Caucasian subtypes.
A comparison of the African and Afro-Caucasian subgroups and the African and Afro-Indian subgroups in our study showed that 3 of the anthropometric measures were statistically different.
However, a comparison between the Afro-Indian and the Afro-Caucasian subgroups generated no differentiation of the measures.