# Latex special equations-LaTeX math and equations

There are two major modes of typesetting math in LaTeX one is embedding the math directly into your text by encapsulating your formula in dollar signs and the other is using a predefined math environment. You can follow along and try the code in the sandbox below. I also prepared a quick reference of math symbols. To make use of the inline math feature, simply write your text and if you need to typeset a single math symbol or formula, surround it with dollar signs:. There is no alignment when using the simple equation environment.     Mathematical expressions. The following Latex special equations summarizes them:. Open an example in Overleaf. How Latex special equations use braces in multi equatoons equations is described dquations the Advanced Mathematics chapter. Unfortunately, you are required to explicitly add these. These formatting commands can be wrapped around the entire equation, and not just on the textual elements: they only format letters, numbers, and uppercase Greek, and other math commands are unaffected. If you do so, you will get an elegant output without worrying about alignment and other details, keeping your source code readable.

## Diaper construction. How to write mathematical notations in LaTeX?

One of the greatest motivating forces for Donald Knuth when he began developing the original TeX system was to create something that allowed simple construction of mathematical formulae, while looking professional when printed.

• One of the greatest motivating forces for Donald Knuth when he began developing the original TeX system was to create something that allowed simple construction of mathematical formulae, while looking professional when printed.

The feature that makes L a T e X the right editing tool for scientific documents is the ability to render complex mathematical expressions. This article explains the basic commands to display equations. Basic equations in L a T e X can be easily "programmed", for example:. Open an example in Overleaf. L a T e X allows two writing modes for mathematical expressions: the inline mode and the display mode.

The first one is used to write formulas that are part of a text. The second one is used to write expressions that are not part of a text or paragraph, and are therefore put on separate lines. They all work and the choice is a matter of taste. Below is a table with some common maths symbols. Different classes of mathematical symbols are characterized by different formatting for example, variables are italicized, but operators are not and different spacing.

Mathematical expressions.

Let us use an example: you want the d of a dx in an integral to be in roman font and a small space away from the rest. LaTeX needs to know when text is mathematical. It only defines those symbols that are known to be available with the current font encoding. It makes it possible to adapt your document to different conventions on the fly, in case for example you have to submit it to a publisher who insists on following house tradition in this respect. Load it in the preamble optionally with the official option :.    ### Latex special equations. With pdfLaTeX

You can easily control the size and style of brackets in L a T e X ; this article explains how. Here's how to type some common math braces and parentheses in L a T e X :. The size of brackets and parentheses can be manually set, or they can be resized dynamically in your document, as shown in the next example:. Even if you are using only one bracket, both commands are mandatory.

Therefore the following code snippet will fail with errors:. For languages other than English you can choose a semiautomatic input selection.

It will select the right input encoding in dependence of the file encoding. German character not rendered to pdf. You could choose another way of input encoding by the selinput package from the oberdiek bundle. It chooses the right encoding by some glyphs from your language correspondingly to the encoding of the source file.

How to use spanish accents? You are not forced to add every letter not in ASCII range, but you have to add some distinctive characters for your language. Below I added the letters from question. Episode of the Stack Overflow podcast is here. We talk Tilde Club and mechanical keyboards. Listen now. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Ask Question. Asked 8 years, 9 months ago.

Active 2 months ago. Viewed k times. How to type these special letters from European languages in latex? Kit Kit 7, 19 19 gold badges 61 61 silver badges bronze badges. Do you know how to type "L'" as well?

It should work with a standard TeX distribution. Did you try my suggestion too? THe problem with using character modification is that spelling no longer works properly Then you can just type the characters normally into your source file. Lousy editor If your text editor doesn't support UTF-8 encoded files, you should probably get another editor.

Alan Munn Alan Munn k 30 30 gold badges silver badges bronze badges. Good advice. It's a good idea to load lmodern after switching the font encoding so that you get a font with all the extra accents and letters in it. Big upvote for fontspec. I was using lualatex and Unicode characters were not displayed at all. I tried inputenc, fontenc, lmodern, babel, polski and nothing worked.

I'm all for UTF-8, but how would you suggest handling scenarios where the publisher's archaic template I'm looking at you, IEEE doesn't include the necessary packages?

Would you simply add them to the template? But loading inputenc and fontenc is likely to be ok. If the publisher provides a style file but you submit camera ready PDF based on the style, then using any engine you like should be fine, and therefore loading the packages you need.

AlanMunn thanks, that's well-put. I suppose the only remaining issue is to make sure the result doesn't stray from the publisher's fonts. I think Kit already covered this in their answer from five years ago , no?

### How To Write Mathematical Equations, Expressions, and Symbols with LaTeX: A cheatsheet. - Authorea

One of the greatest motivating forces for Donald Knuth when he began developing the original TeX system was to create something that allowed simple construction of mathematical formulae, while looking professional when printed.

Typesetting mathematics is one of LaTeX's greatest strengths. It is also a large topic due to the existence of so much mathematical notation. The mathtools package fixes some amsmath quirks and adds some useful settings, symbols, and environments to amsmath.

LaTeX needs to know when text is mathematical. This is because LaTeX typesets maths notation differently from normal text. Therefore, special environments have been declared for this purpose. They can be distinguished into two categories depending on how they are presented:. As math requires special environments, there are naturally the appropriate environment names you can use in the standard way. The following table summarizes them:.

If you are typing text normally, you are said to be in text mode , but while you are typing within one of those mathematical environments, you are said to be in math mode , that has some differences compared to the text mode :. Doing so might cause the line to be taller, but will cause exponents and indices to be displayed correctly for some math operators.

Mathematics has many symbols! There is a set of symbols that can be accessed directly from the keyboard:. Beyond those listed above, distinct commands must be issued in order to display the desired symbols. There are many examples such as Greek letters, set and relations symbols, arrows, binary operators, etc.

Fortunately, there's a tool that can greatly simplify the search for the command for a specific symbol. Look for "Detexify" in the external links section below. Greek letters are commonly used in mathematics, and they are very easy to type in math mode. You just have to type the name of the letter after a backslash: if the first letter is lowercase, you will get a lowercase Greek letter, if the first letter is uppercase and only the first letter , then you will get an uppercase letter.

Lowercase epsilon, theta, kappa, phi, pi, rho, and sigma are provided in two different versions. The alternate, or var iant, version is created by adding "var" before the name of the letter:. Scroll down to List of mathematical symbols for a complete list of Greek symbols. An operator is a function that is written as a word: e. LaTeX has many of these defined as commands:. For certain operators such as limits , the subscript is placed underneath the operator:.

To use operators that are not pre-defined, such as argmax , see custom operators. Powers and indices are equivalent to superscripts and subscripts in normal text mode. If this looks a little "loose" overspaced , a tightened version can be defined by inserting some negative space. In some cases, using the package alone will result in errors about certain font shapes not being available. In that case, the lmodern and fix-cm packages need to be added as well.

To make multiplication visually similar to a fraction, a nested array can be used, for example multiplication of numbers written one below the other. It accepts an optional argument specified in square brackets [ and ] to change magnitude:. Some people prefer writing the square root "closing" it over its content. This habit is not normally used while writing with the computer, but if you still want to change the output of the square root, LaTeX gives you this possibility.

Just add the following code in the preamble of your document:. The new square root can be seen in the picture on the left, compared to the old one on the right. In other words, you can redefine the square root this way only if you are not going to use multiple roots in the whole document. The typical notation for sums is:. The limits for the integrals follow the same notation.

However if you want this to apply to ALL integrals, it is preferable to specify the intlimits option when loading the amsmath package:. Subscripts and superscripts in other contexts as well as other parameters to amsmath package related to them are described in Advanced Mathematics chapter. For bigger integrals, you may use personal declarations, or the bigints package .

How to use braces in multi line equations is described in the Advanced Mathematics chapter. Without them, formulas can become ambiguous. Also, special types of mathematical structures, such as matrices, typically rely on delimiters to enclose them. Very often mathematical features will differ in size, in which case the delimiters surrounding the expression should vary accordingly.

Any of the previous delimiters may be used in combination with these:. If a delimiter on only one side of an expression is required, then an invisible delimiter on the other side may be denoted using a period. These commands are primarily useful when dealing with nested delimiters. For example, when typesetting. This can be difficult to read. To fix this, we write. Manual sizing can also be useful when an equation is too large, trails off the end of the page, and must be separated into two lines using an align command.

To specify alignment of columns in the table, use starred version  :. The alignment by default is c but it can be any column type valid in array environment. When writing down arbitrary sized matrices, it is common to use horizontal, vertical and diagonal triplets of dots known as ellipses to fill in certain columns and rows.

In some cases you may want to have finer control of the alignment within each column, or want to insert lines between columns or rows. This can be achieved using the array environment, which is essentially a math-mode version of the tabular environment , which requires that the columns be pre-specified:.

You may see that the AMS matrix class of environments doesn't leave enough space when used together with fractions resulting in output similar to this:. To insert a small matrix, and not increase leading in the line containing it, use smallmatrix environment:.

The math environment differs from the text environment in the representation of text. Here is an example of trying to represent text within the math environment:. Both issues are simply artifacts of the maths mode, in that it treats it as a mathematical expression: spaces are ignored LaTeX spaces mathematics according to its own rules , and each character is a separate element so are not positioned as closely as normal text.

There are a number of ways that text can be added properly. Let's see what happens when the above equation code is adapted:. The text looks better. However, there are no gaps between the numbers and the words. Unfortunately, you are required to explicitly add these.

These commands format the argument accordingly, e. These commands are equally valid within a maths environment to include text. We can now format text; what about formatting mathematical expressions?

There are a set of formatting commands very similar to the font formatting ones just used, except that they are specifically aimed at text in math mode requires amsfonts. These formatting commands can be wrapped around the entire equation, and not just on the textual elements: they only format letters, numbers, and uppercase Greek, and other math commands are unaffected.

To change the size of the fonts in math mode, see Changing font size. The package xcolor , described in Colors , allows us to add color to our equations. For example,. The only problem is that this disrupts the default L a T e X formatting around the - operator. This process is described here. When two maths elements appear on either side of the sign, it is assumed to be a binary operator, and as such, allocates some space to either side of the sign. The alternative way is a sign designation.

This is when you state whether a mathematical quantity is either positive or negative. In this instance, you want the sign to appear close to the appropriate element to show their association. However, it can't always be relied upon to accurately interpret formulas in the way you did. It has to make certain assumptions when there are ambiguous expressions. The result tends to be slightly incorrect horizontal spacing.

In these events, the output is still satisfactory, yet any perfectionists will no doubt wish to fine-tune their formulas to ensure spacing is correct. These are generally very subtle adjustments. There are other occasions where LaTeX has done its job correctly, but you just want to add some space, maybe to add a comment of some kind.

For example, in the following equation, it is preferable to ensure there is a decent amount of space between the maths and the text. This code produces errors with Miktex 2. LaTeX has defined two commands that can be used anywhere in documents not just maths to insert some horizontal space.

OK, so back to the fine tuning as mentioned at the beginning of the document. A good example would be displaying the simple equation for the indefinite integral of y with respect to x :. However, this doesn't give the correct result. LaTeX doesn't respect the white-space left in the code to signify that the y and the d x are independent entities. Instead, it lumps them altogether. The negative space may seem like an odd thing to use, however, it wouldn't be there if it didn't have some use!

Take the following example:.  